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Background: The effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and nanoscaffolds were evaluated in enhancing wound healing in irradiated albino rats. Methods: Sixty-four male rats were subjected to 6 grays (Gy) of gamma (γ)-rays. Surgical wounds were created on the rats’ backs and they were randomly assigned to one of four groups (16 each); these were an irradiated control group, which did not receive treatment, an NS group treated with a nanoscaffold, a BM-MSC group injected subcutaneously with 1 million BM-MSCs, and a combination BM-MSC+NS group treated with BM-MSCs and a nanoscaffold. Wound healing was measured clinically and histologically. Results: The greatest reduction of anteroposterior wound dimensions was recorded in the BM-MSC+NS group (-69.79 ±19.27), followed by the NS group (-61.12 ±17.32), then the BM-MSC group (-43.89 ±20.04), and the least decrease was observed in the control group (-16.69 ±12.18) (p = 0.001). Meanwhile, the greatest reduction of lateral wound dimensions was recorded in the NS group (-60.41 ±11.80), followed by the BM-MSC+NS group (-45.23 ±62.82), then the BM-MSC group (-41.07 ±24.78), with the control group demonstrating the least reduction (-16.49 ±20.90) (p = 0.008). Histologically, the combination group demonstrated the best healing results compared to the other groups. Conclusion: Nanoscaffolds and/or BM-MSC transplantation improved wound healing and regeneration in irradiated rats, providing possible therapeutic strategies for delayed wound healing during radiotherapy.
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