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Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a light source treatment that generates light of a single wavelength. Low-level lasers do not cause temperature elevation within tissue, but rather produce their effects through photobiostimulation. Low-level lasers (LLL) do not cut or ablate tissue. Low-level laser therapy devices include gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As) infrared semiconductors and helium-neon (He-Ne) lasers. The output powers range from 50 to 500 mW with wavelengths in the red and near infrared of the electromagnetic spectrum, from 630 to 980 nm, with pulsed or continuous-wave emission. The application of LLLT has become popular in a variety of clinical applications in periodontics including the promotion of wound healing and the reduction of pain following non-surgical and surgical procedures. There is good evidence that the enhanced cell metabolic functions seen after LLLT are the result of the activation of photo-receptors within the electron transport chain of mitochondria. The articles included in this review were searched from PubMed, TRIP, Google Scholar, and Cochrane databases. The purpose of this review was to critically analyze the effectiveness of LLLT on soft and hard tissue in order for dentists and specialists to have a clear understanding of the clinical applications of LLLT in periodontal disease.
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