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Background: Augmentation of vertical bone defects remains the corner stone in periodontal tissue engineering. The amount and quality of alveolar bone available in all dimensions affects the success of dental implants for restoration of edentulous areas. Adequate and healthy bone supports the degree of osseointegration which in turn affects the long-term success of oral implants. The primary aim of the study was to histologically evaluate autogenous block grafts versus synthetic block grafts for the treatment of atrophic vertical and horizontal bony defects (Siebert Class III) in the anterior esthetic zone of the mouth. The secondary aim was to clinically and radiographically evaluate the outcomes of the procedure. Methods: This was a randomized controlled clinical study with a statistically determined sample size of 10 patients per group and a total of 20 patients in both groups. Patients with vertical and horizontal bone loss were enrolled from the Department of Oral Medicine, Periodontology, and Oral Diagnosis of Ain Shams University and Misr International University. Bone augmentation procedures were performed using two techniques: autogenous bone block graft and xenograft bone block graft both with leukocyte-platelet rich fibrin (L-PRF). Results: Both autogenous and xenograft blocks in conjunction with L-PRF had a significant effect on vertical bone augmentation in cases of atrophic ridges in the esthetic region. Conclusion: Both autogenous and xenograft bone blocks in conjunction with L-PRF have a significant effect on vertical bone augmentation in cases of atrophic ridges in the esthetic region.
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